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How they're made

Nonwovens emerged from the textile, paper and plastic industries and has, for over 40 years, evolved into a distinct industry.

As the demand for nonwovens has steadily increased, it has been met by the technology and ingenuity of raw materials and equipment suppliers, and nonwoven producers and converters.
The production of nonwovens can be described as taking place in three stages, although modern technology allows an overlapping of some stages, and in some cases all three stages can take place at the same time.

The three stages are:

Web Formation

  • Drylaid
    • Carded
    • Airlaid
  • Spunmelt
    • Spunlaid (or spunbonded)
    • Meltblown
  • Wetlaid
  • Other technologies
    • Electrostatic spinning
    • Flash spun

Web Bonding

  • Chemical
  • Thermal
  • Mechanical
    • Needlepunching
    • Hydro-entanglement
    • Stitchbonding

Finishing Treatments

The opportunity to combine different raw materials and different techniques accounts for the diversity of the industry and its products. This diversity is enhanced by the ability to engineer nonwovens to have specific properties and to perform specific tasks.
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